Participants: Deyvy Rodriguez & Jon Paulien
Series Code: JBOTB
Program Code: JBOTB00024A
00:19 Hello, friends, and welcome back
00:20 to this program "Books of the Book."
00:22 My name is Deyvy Rodriguez and I'm so happy
00:24 that you are taking this time to join us in this Bible study.
00:28 And we are studying the Gospel of John
00:30 and that today we are picking up on Chapter 18
00:33 and we are talking about the cross.
00:35 So if you have a Bible near you,
00:37 I invite you to open it to Chapter 18
00:39 and join us in this Bible study.
00:41 And I have been blessed to know that,
00:45 as I read more and more that there is a deeper message
00:48 that God wants us to learn.
00:50 And with us is Dr. Jon Paulien,
00:52 he is a Bible scholar, he is the Dean
00:54 of the School Religion in Loma Linda University
00:57 to join us in this study and I keep telling him
01:00 that I have been blessed again.
01:02 And the more I study, the more I learned.
01:04 And, Dr. Paulien, you know the last program
01:07 we talked about Chapter 17 which is the prayer of Jesus
01:13 and He is talking about, He is praying for His disciples,
01:16 He is praying for Himself and He is also praying
01:19 for is what you call the second generation or you and I.
01:23 Now, let me ask you a question as we go into Chapter 18.
01:28 Is the cross the only revelation of God's character
01:34 or is how does God reveal Himself
01:37 to us other than a cross if so.
01:40 Okay, that's a good question, you want to be clear on that.
01:44 I'm not in any way suggesting the cross
01:46 is the only revelation of God.
01:49 God reveals Himself in many ways.
01:51 He reveals Himself through prophecy.
01:55 He reveals Himself through history.
01:58 He reveals Himself through nature.
02:01 Jesus even says, "Inasmuch as you've done
02:04 it to one of the least of these my brethren,
02:06 you've done it onto Me."
02:07 In other words we can see glimpses of Jesus
02:10 even in the behavior of others.
02:12 Certainly the life of Jesus is a very important revelation
02:16 of what God is like in the Gospel of John.
02:19 But, what John is saying is that the cross is the clearest,
02:23 that's where the glory is seen.
02:25 The name, the character of God
02:27 is most clearly seen there on the cross,
02:31 So let's keep the focus there, it's not only on the cross
02:35 but the cross does it perhaps more clearly than anywhere else.
02:40 Okay, and so today we are now studying Chapter 18.
02:43 Now, we are moving to the cross.
02:45 We are moving to the cross.
02:47 So tell us the setting here.
02:48 Where are we at that this point?
02:50 Okay. Well, in the Gospel of John,
02:52 the cross is in both Chapters 18 and 19
02:55 and because there is so much in there,
02:58 we are going to divide those up into two programs.
03:01 So today we are focusing primarily on Chapter 18.
03:05 And the story begins in a garden and it ends in a garden.
03:10 That's interesting.
03:12 We spoke earlier in the series
03:14 about the Hollywood version of Jesus.
03:17 How we pick and choose from all the gospels
03:19 and create a composite picture.
03:22 That is excellent for people to understand and to follow,
03:26 but it sometimes blinds us to some of the interesting details.
03:30 And that is that Jesus agony happened in Gethsemane
03:35 but it doesn't say in Matthew,
03:36 Mark and Luke that it was a garden.
03:38 John doesn't mention Gethsemane, but he does tell us it happens
03:42 in a garden at the foot of the Mount of Olives you see.
03:45 So we know where it is, we know the name of the place.
03:50 We know what it was like but we piece that together
03:53 from three different gospels.
03:55 So John seem to want to make the point
03:58 that the cross starts in the garden
04:00 and it ends in the garden.
04:01 The tomb Jesus was buried in is in a garden.
04:06 Now, the story is broken into three parts
04:08 in Chapters 18 and 19 and they don't divide
04:11 neatly at the chapter line.
04:14 Verse 1 to 27 of Chapter 18, now the first part
04:17 where you have the arrest of Jesus,
04:20 His Indictment before the Jewish priest
04:24 and then in Chapter 18:28 through 19:16
04:28 we have His trial before the Romans,
04:31 preside over by the governor, a judge named Pilate.
04:36 And then in 19:16 through the end of 19,
04:39 you have the crucifixion itself and then the death of Jesus,
04:44 the verification of that death and His burial.
04:47 So it's sort of a fairly neat division
04:51 into three fairly equal parts.
04:54 We'll look at the first part in this program
04:56 and as far into the trial before Pilate as time allows.
05:03 This is the section.
05:05 Chapters 18 and 19 are the section
05:07 of the Gospel of John where there is the most connections
05:11 with Matthew, Mark, and Luke.
05:12 So that the story of the cross is quite familiar
05:16 in those gospels as well but that makes this perhaps
05:20 the most fun part of Gospel of John
05:22 because we can see the things that John adds to the story,
05:27 like the garden piece and on the things
05:29 that he doesn't mention that are mentioned
05:32 in Matthew, Mark, and Luke.
05:33 So the richness of the story is particularly in the fact
05:38 that we can see how he does it differently
05:42 than Matthew, Mark, and Luke too.
05:46 I think the particular emphasis in the story
05:48 is what I called the irony of Peter, Pilate and Jesus.
05:55 Because Jesus is contrasted with these other two.
05:58 One of them is a Jew, the other one is a Gentile
06:01 and both of them make some serious mistakes in the section.
06:06 Both of them are basically
06:08 looking at their own personal comfort.
06:12 They are seeking to avoid pain, embarrassment, loss of job,
06:17 loss of reputation so the behavior of Peter and Pilate
06:21 is motivated by the immediate situation.
06:25 The result is long term consequences
06:27 that are devastating.
06:29 Jesus on the other hand takes the long view
06:33 allowing Himself to be pinned on the cross.
06:36 There is nothing pleasant about it.
06:39 There is no immediate gratification whatsoever.
06:42 But He does that because of the long term results.
06:46 I think one of the big problems in politics today
06:49 is that the people want the leaders
06:52 to make short term decisions.
06:54 They complaint unemployment is up this month,
06:57 do something about it.
06:58 Well, anything you could do about it would probably
07:01 take two or three years to really kick in, you see.
07:03 So somehow we are all wired to this immediate
07:07 gratification thing, you know,
07:09 have it now, you know, have your cake now
07:11 and have the meal later kind of a thing.
07:13 And it is because Jesus and God take the long view
07:18 that the cross is a big piece of things.
07:21 So in John nowhere else is this contrast
07:26 between the way Jesus makes decisions
07:28 and the way Peter and Pilate do.
07:29 Pilate by the way is in a real sense
07:31 the other star of the story.
07:34 He plays a central role in the Gospel of John,
07:36 much less so in Matthew, Mark and Luke.
07:41 So let's go to that first section, verses 1 to 27.
07:46 Jesus is arrested in the garden
07:49 and then He is brought before Annas
07:52 who is one of the high priest.
07:55 Does have more to say about him a little bit.
07:58 Then there is a picture of Peter in the courtyard
07:59 along with a beloved disciple who only appears here
08:04 and then it goes back to the trial before the high priest
08:07 as it says and then it goes back to Peter
08:10 in the court yard of the high priest.
08:12 So you have this kind of a double stage back and forth
08:16 in much of the section.
08:20 In Matthew, Mark, and Luke, the trial happens
08:23 before Caiaphas who is the high priest.
08:28 Only in John is the trial before Annas and John
08:32 makes clear that there is a trial before Caiaphas
08:36 but he only mentions it in passing.
08:38 He doesn't describe it, that's already done
08:40 in the other gospels but he zeros
08:44 in on this trial before Annas.
08:47 And there is a interesting background to this you see.
08:50 Annas was the high priest back at the beginning
08:54 of Tiberius reign but for whatever reason
08:57 he displeased the Romans, The Romans removed him
09:01 and put Caiaphas, his son in law I believe in his place.
09:07 The Jews never truly accepted this because for them
09:11 a high priest was to serve for life,
09:15 so when the Romans removed him,
09:18 Annas retained the moral authority before the Jews.
09:21 He was the real high priest.
09:23 Caiaphas never quite got that respect from the people
09:27 but Caiaphas had the power of Rome behind him.
09:30 So that meant the decision that Caiaphas
09:32 made had to be obeyed, Annas could only persuade.
09:36 Caiaphas was the one who really had the power
09:39 and so Annas is brought in here because
09:43 if he can persuade them to do away with Jesus,
09:46 then Caiaphas and Pilate can act on it.
09:49 So he still has the power of persuasion
09:52 but no longer has the position.
09:55 Yeah, and then I can image them both working together
09:59 because Annas was the father-in-law of Caiaphas.
10:03 Yeah, assuming that got along well.
10:06 The fact that they hold the trial separately,
10:09 you might suggest that wasn't so.
10:12 That's a good observation.
10:13 Yeah. So unfortunately,
10:15 we won't be reading all of the verses today
10:18 because there is no time reading
10:19 such a long chapter but where are we reading?
10:23 Why don't we read the garden story in John 18:1-11.
10:29 Okay, When Jesus had spoken these words,
10:33 he went out with his disciples over the brook Cedron,
10:36 where there was a garden,
10:37 which he and his disciples entered and Judas
10:40 who betrayed him also knew the place for Jesus
10:42 often met there with his disciples.
10:45 Then, Judas having received the detachment of troops
10:48 and the officers from the chief priests and Pharisees
10:51 came there with lanterns, torches and weapons.
10:54 Therefore, Jesus knowing all things that would come upon him,
10:58 went forward and said to them, Whom are you seeking.
11:02 They answered him, Jesus of Nazareth.
11:05 Jesus said to them, I am he.
11:06 And Judas who betrayed him also stood with him.
11:10 Now, when he said to them I'm he they drew back,
11:13 and fell to the ground.
11:14 Then he asked them again, whom are you seeking?
11:17 And they said, Jesus of Nazareth.
11:19 Jesus answered I have told you that I am he therefore
11:23 if you seek me, let these go their way.
11:26 That the saying might be fulfilled,
11:27 which he spoke, of those who gave me I have lost none.
11:31 Then Simon and Peter having a sword drew it and struck
11:34 the high priest's servant, and cut off his right ear.
11:37 The servant's name was Malchus.
11:39 So, Jesus said to Peter, put your sword into the sheath,
11:45 Shall I now drink the cup which my Father has given me?
11:49 Okay, there is a lot about this story
11:53 that reminds us of the Gethsemane experience
11:56 in Matthew, Mark and Luke but it's quite different as well.
12:01 Let me share some of the differences here.
12:02 I wrote them down because there are so many.
12:05 First of all it's in a garden, Matthew and Mark say Gethsemane.
12:09 Luke simply says they went to the Mount of Olives
12:12 so all of that is true, but they each focus
12:17 on a different thing.
12:19 John tells us they went there often,
12:21 the others don't say that.
12:24 He tells us that Judas knew the place.
12:27 He mentions that there are detachments
12:29 of soldiers with the crowd,
12:31 the others just talk about a mob,
12:33 that comes in sort of a street riot.
12:35 And here you have Roman soldiers,
12:37 I mean this is an official gathering.
12:42 Notice there is no agony, no Gethsemane anguish.
12:46 You know, Jesus doesn't separate to pray.
12:48 John leaves out a lot of things that the others cover.
12:52 There is no kiss from Judas.
12:55 Judas just shows up with the army.
12:57 Notice that Jesus says, I am again, they go in me.
13:02 I'm the one you are looking for.
13:03 I'm Jesus of Nazareth you see.
13:07 Peter and Malchus are named here.
13:11 It only says in the others that there is a disciple
13:13 who strikes the high priest's servant cuts off the ear.
13:16 Notice Jesus doesn't heal it in the story.
13:20 And Jesus asks for the disciples release
13:24 so those are all details that Matthew,
13:27 Mark and Luke don't have.
13:29 What's the point? What's the difference?
13:31 Matthew, Mark and Luke emphasize
13:33 the anguish of Jesus in the garden.
13:37 John emphasizes almost the opposite.
13:40 He is in control.
13:42 Jesus is fully in control of the situation.
13:45 In a way I think it is John picking up on in Chapter 10:18,
13:50 where he says "I lay down my life of my own accord"
13:54 Jesus makes clear that it's a voluntary death
13:58 that He is allowing Himself to be taken.
14:02 He is allowing Himself to be tried.
14:04 He is allowing Himself to be nailed to the cross.
14:07 He is allowing Himself to be killed.
14:09 This is a voluntary act.
14:11 This is a deliberate choice on the part of God.
14:17 He is in full control of the situation.
14:19 It isn't Judas that controls the situation,
14:21 is not Judas' kiss that controls the situation.
14:27 But, Peter has the opposite view.
14:31 He thinks it's out of control and very actions
14:36 Peter takes to get it under control are actually a problem.
14:39 Because they undermine Jesus' argument
14:41 to Pilate later on as we will see.
14:44 So Jesus in trying to get control of the situation
14:48 and Peter in trying to get control of the situation
14:50 actually messes it up, makes it worse.
14:53 Ever happened in your life?
14:54 Ever feel like everything is out of control
14:58 and instead of sometimes giving ourselves to God
15:00 and letting Him be in control of the situation,
15:03 we try to fix it ourselves.
15:05 I think that's what many religions do.
15:08 They see problems and they try to fix the problems
15:10 rather than getting in line with God's purpose for the situation.
15:15 To God there is always a purpose,
15:18 there is always control.
15:20 But Jesus even going to the cross
15:23 is in control of the situation.
15:25 Well, friends we are studying the Gospel of John
15:28 and stay with us as we pick up on this Chapter 18.