Participants: Agatha Thrash, Don Miller
Series Code: HYTH
Program Code: HYTH000154
00:01 Hello, I'm Agatha Thrash, a staff physician from
00:04 Uchee Pines Institute.
00:06 We find people at Uchee Pines who come there for all
00:09 manner of diseases and finally we may make the diagnosis that
00:14 your problem is due to your stresses.
00:16 If you'd like to hear a program on that,
00:18 for the next half an hour, we'll be discussing some
00:21 things about stress.
00:22 We hope you will join us.
00:44 Welcome to "Help Yourself to Health"
00:47 with Dr. Agatha Thrash of Uchee Pines Institute.
00:50 And now, here's your host Dr. Thrash
00:55 It may come as a bit of a surprise to you that stress
00:58 is a frequent cause of ill health.
01:02 In fact, very serious disease can be caused by stress...
01:07 because stress adversely affects many of our body systems.
01:11 And I have with me one of my cohorts at Uchee Pines,
01:17 Don Miller
01:18 And Don Miller is a health educator and one of our
01:24 speakers in many of our seminars and
01:27 Don Miller will start the ball rolling with some things about
01:30 stress and how it impacts the health... Don Miller
01:33 Thank you, Dr. Thrash.
01:34 You know, evolutionists figure that... Hmm... where did stress
01:39 come from... Why do we have stress?
01:40 Well, I know why we have it.
01:42 Back when they had to hunt those big, nasty monsters
01:44 and big dinosaurs and had to go out there and live by their
01:48 wits and by their muscles.
01:49 They had to have the special burst of different hormones
01:53 through their body to get them to survive.
01:55 And now it's just a vestige of evolution and
01:58 why we have it nowadays.
02:00 I don't agree with that...
02:01 I believe that stress and the hormones...
02:05 and all these things involved in the stress process
02:08 are again, like everything else,
02:10 a gift of God to be used in the right way.
02:12 Stress is a good thing... in the right situation.
02:16 The trick about stress is... how do you manage your stress?
02:20 Now let's just look at the stress situation, or the
02:23 stress mechanism.
02:25 What causes stress?
02:26 Well it can be something physical...
02:28 It can be something environmental...
02:30 It can be something chemical...
02:32 It can be a number of different things that causes
02:35 a stress response.
02:37 Basically, it's going to be something that you sense
02:39 9 times out of 10...
02:41 Some central input comes in... you see the Rottweiler...
02:45 you smell the smoke in your basement...
02:47 you see the flickering blue lights in the car behind you...
02:51 you see your boss coming down the hallway and you are
02:54 at the drinking fountain when you're not supposed to be.
02:56 Whatever it is, these things are stressors.
02:59 How are you going to deal?
03:00 But what happens when you get this input?
03:03 Well first of all, the cortex of the brain
03:06 receives the information, it processes it...
03:10 and it sends it to the amygdala
03:11 The amygdala again does some processing
03:14 and it sends along and activates the hypothalamus
03:17 and the hypothalamus says... Hmm...
03:19 It sends the message down to the adrenal medulla
03:23 and it says, "We need now some adrenalin. "
03:26 And so now... PFUUU! We've got some adrenalin in our system.
03:29 At the same time, the pituitary is sending a message down
03:33 to the adrenal cortex and it's sending out some other hormones.
03:37 Now what do these hormones do?
03:38 Well, the adrenalin is going to increase your heart rate...
03:44 And it's going to increase your glucose.
03:46 Now, the glucose goes up to give you more muscle strength.
03:49 The heart rate goes up to get that glucose...
03:52 that's now in the blood, all the way throughout the system.
03:55 The pituitary is sending its message down to the adrenals
04:00 to send out some hormones that are going to keep these things
04:03 up at the right levels, and at the same time,
04:05 increase your respiration, do some dilation of your
04:09 blood vessels... the dilation of your eyes,
04:12 your ears are more keen...
04:13 You stop digestion. You stop elimination.
04:17 Everything is ready for... perhaps we can use
04:20 the "fight or flight" mode of the body
04:23 which is a good thing in the right situation.
04:26 When the Rottweiler comes, you need to know
04:29 what to do in that situation.
04:32 Are you going to run?
04:33 Are you going to fight the thing?
04:34 But you need some special equipment...
04:36 and that's what it's given to us for.
04:38 The same type of stress can come to us though
04:42 when we're sitting in traffic
04:44 trying to get to the airport...
04:46 and we're almost late and the traffic stopped...
04:49 we're going to miss our flight.
04:50 Same type of stress.
04:51 Same hormones are pouring into the system.
04:54 Your heart rate has gone up,
04:55 you're a little bit flushed,
04:57 you're breathing a little bit heavier,
04:58 you're starting to worry.
04:59 Now what do you do?
05:01 If you do not take care of that stress...
05:03 People who get caught into this chronic stress situation
05:07 ...always stressed out and those are really the type A
05:10 type of people... they have some serious problems
05:13 with their health.
05:14 We need, at those times, to learn how to
05:17 release the stress.
05:18 There is one saying I want you to remember...
05:20 Remember this one...
05:22 "EXERCISE NEUTRALIZES STRESS."
05:25 When you are in a stressful situation,
05:27 somehow do some exercising.
05:30 If you are stuck in your car, in traffic,
05:33 stop and go... you can't even get out and walk around your car
05:35 Start doing some hand exercises, doing some isometric exercises
05:39 Even singing and yelling will help you release some of the
05:43 steam from your system... it's now getting overcooked
05:47 and you're getting into a sick situation.
05:49 We need to learn how to RELEASE the stress.
05:53 God has given us this ability to have the stressful situation
05:57 to meet stressful circumstances.
06:01 We use this stress response when we are getting ready
06:05 to do something very important...
06:07 a particular performance, an athletic event,
06:10 what ever it is, we need this extra burst of these hormones
06:16 and the sensitivity to our environment
06:18 to do our very best job.
06:20 And so, I'm thankful for the gift that God has given us
06:23 in the stress response...
06:27 But, again, it's how we deal with the stress, Dr. Thrash,
06:30 and most people don't deal with it very well.
06:33 That is quite true.
06:34 Now, when we are under stress,
06:37 our mucosal surfaces... in fact all of our epithelial
06:41 surfaces all through the body...
06:43 those on the skin, those in the gastrointestinal tract,
06:47 those in the sinuses and down through the lungs.
06:52 All of these are adversely affected by stress.
06:56 Therefore, when we are under special stress,
06:59 we can have some kind of affliction in those areas.
07:02 I remember one time, a young man we had a Uchee Pines,
07:07 who was one of our drivers.
07:08 He was a very sensitive young man but he was also
07:12 a young man who was a bit clumsy and often was
07:15 doing things wrong.
07:17 So one of his supervisors, one time, just made a list
07:20 of everything that he was doing wrong...
07:21 Simply wrote it down and there were 23 items on the list.
07:27 So, I knew that this was going on and I could hear
07:31 a very quiet young man, listening to this laundry list
07:37 of all of his failings.
07:38 The very next day this young man who had not been sick
07:42 in a long time, came down with a bad case of a cold.
07:45 Now that's just one instance...
07:48 That had to do with the reduction in the defense
07:51 mechanisms of the upper respiratory tract.
07:54 But also, in other mucosal surfaces,
07:57 we have a reduction in T cells...
08:00 a reduction in the defense mechanisms that
08:05 guard us and make a barrier against the entry of
08:10 various germs or foreign agents like pollens or
08:15 other allergens.
08:16 And so another of our workers at Uchee Pines,
08:20 a man who is in a very stressful job... he is one of our
08:25 maintenance engineers...
08:26 And this young man sometimes has a breakdown of his stomach
08:34 This epithelial surface that makes a barrier against
08:38 many things...
08:39 Of course when we swallow things,
08:40 right there at the entry, through the mucosa of the
08:47 stomach, that goes from the stomach into bloodstream...
08:50 right there, there are barriers that keep things out
08:54 and that's the important function of this mucosa...
08:58 ...is to keep things out.
08:59 We might think that the mucosal surfaces of the
09:04 gastrointestinal tract are just waiting to receive everything
09:08 But that isn't true, there are many things
09:09 that they keep out.
09:10 Or, they keep out MOST everything...
09:13 Such as too much iron.
09:15 But, let's take the man who is in the stressful position
09:19 at Uchee Pines, whose stomach fails under his stresses.
09:24 What happens with him is that because of the weakening
09:27 of the immune system in the stomach lining,
09:30 he gets an infection called, "H. pylori"
09:34 Now H. pylori, as some of you will know,
09:37 is a germ associated with peptic ulcers.
09:41 When I was in medical school, there was one thing that
09:43 we knew for certain and that is that peptic ulcers
09:47 were not caused by a germ.
09:48 The germs we found there, we just KNEW that they were
09:52 secondary invaders.
09:53 But now, 50 years later, we understand that...
09:56 Yes, a germ is one of the CAUSES, one of the known
10:01 causes of peptic ulcer.
10:02 And the reason that it attacks the stomach under stress,
10:05 is that there is a weakening of the defense mechanism
10:09 We always felt that because of the stress,
10:12 it made us over-produce hydrochloric acid and
10:17 pepsin and things of this nature...
10:19 so that we were more likely to gnaw the inside of our
10:23 stomach lining with these very powerful chemicals.
10:26 But now we know that it is a reduction in the immune system
10:30 functioning right at the barrier and that allows the
10:33 germ to penetrate and colonize the lining of the stomach.
10:40 Now there are things that we can do...
10:42 Of course, we can treat the stress... that is true...
10:44 and we should but ALSO, we can give the person a variety
10:49 of simple remedies that can be helpful in this stress-related
10:56 One of those is a tranquilizer...
10:58 and one of the tranquilizer herbs such as catnip
11:01 or skullcap... those are very good...
11:04 mint tea and chamomile... these are all mild sedative herbs
11:10 And will often, with the continued use of them,
11:13 be just sufficient to give the person a tranquil feeling
11:17 when they do a very stressful job.
11:19 Another thing is the antibacterial herbs.
11:23 There are a number of them... Garlic is a good one.
11:25 Grapefruit seed extract is an extremely good one.
11:28 And Echinacea and goldenseal, these are also very good ones.
11:33 You will find that Mastic gum is very good
11:36 for the H. pylori germ.
11:39 Many of these can be obtained from health food stores
11:42 with very little effort.
11:45 And we recommend that you do try to get them there.
11:48 Now other mucosal surfaces that can be affected when a person
11:53 is under stress, are all of those mucosal surfaces
11:57 in the genitourinary tract... the GU tract,
12:02 that would be vaginal surfaces, ureteral and urethral and
12:07 bladder surfaces...
12:08 All of these surfaces are also affected by stress.
12:11 And so, women are more prone to stress-related problems
12:17 than men are as a general rule.
12:19 And especially is that so in the bladder.
12:21 So cold feet, which the body perceives as a stress,
12:26 a stressor... the cold feet will cause a reduction
12:32 in blood flow and also a reduction in the protective
12:36 white blood cells that make a barrier against the penetration
12:40 of any kind of germ from the outside, and
12:43 because of that, a woman may come down with cystitis...
12:46 because of having cold feet or habitually cold feet.
12:51 Now viruses can also invade our premises easier when
12:57 we are under stress... such as cold stress.
13:00 And so, we mentioned about the young man who got a cold,
13:05 but don't forget that cancer is also caused by a virus.
13:09 The virus of breast cancer may be triggered,
13:15 or at least assisted in getting a toehold in the breast by
13:21 the chilling of the extremities.
13:24 We know that in habitually chilled women,
13:28 they tend to have more breast cancer, at least in cold
13:33 climates... there is more breast cancer than in warmer climates
13:37 where the extremities are not habitually chilled.
13:40 So, I hope that this little discussion about chilling
13:43 and about stress on the mucosal surfaces can be helpful
13:48 to you to know how to protect yourself in this instance from
13:52 these kinds of afflictions.
13:55 And now, Don Miller will have another aspect of stress
13:59 to talk with you about.
14:00 Okay, Dr. Thrash, I mentioned the term, "type A personalities"
14:05 I'm not into typing people.
14:07 I don't like all this phlegmatic and choleric
14:10 and all these things...
14:11 But we do have people who are a little bit more type A...
14:14 as you realize these are the driven type of people
14:16 ...the perfectionist type of people
14:18 ...everything has to be just so.
14:20 Then you've got the type B type of people that
14:22 are sort of laid back... let it flow, let it go...
14:25 Basically the type A type of a personality
14:28 is the type of a person who is a stress magnet.
14:32 They make their own stresses.
14:34 Now when I say, "make their own stresses,"
14:37 again I have to stress.. that STRESSES are out there.
14:41 It's how we relate to... receive and process the stressor
14:48 I know that some people when they get...
14:50 I used to be type A type of a person...
14:53 Let me mention one situation I was in that I have tried
14:57 very much to get away from...
14:58 and I think the Lord has given me the great victory here
15:00 I had taken someone to the airport in Atlanta...
15:03 and I've always been a perfectionist...
15:06 On the way home from the airport,
15:07 and I had driven this road dozens and dozens of times
15:10 I've lived in Atlanta.
15:11 I've been at Uchee Pines for a number of years...
15:14 Instead of going down I-85, I took I-285 going north.
15:19 And I really flagellated myself!
15:22 I said, "Why did you do this stupid thing?"
15:25 You know... this type A thing... getting tense,
15:27 ...heart rate going up... breathing deeper...
15:30 I'm sure all kinds of stress things were going through
15:32 my body...
15:33 But then the thought came to me...
15:36 to ask the Lord...
15:37 "Lord, you know I know better than this...
15:40 There's a purpose for this just happening.
15:43 I want you to... Please... I know that some things
15:46 we won't understand until we get to heaven,
15:49 but maybe once in a while, let us find out down here
15:52 why we make these really BIG mistakes and they were needless"
15:57 And, as soon as I started talking to the Lord about this
16:00 thing, I didn't have anymore stress.
16:02 I got off the first exit, came back on the other side,
16:06 came down and as soon as I was getting back on I-85,
16:09 someone was letting out a hitchhiker
16:11 on the side of the road...
16:12 And the Lord told me... "That's why you did that. "
16:16 Well... Praise the Lord.
16:18 And so, I picked up the hitchhiker
16:20 and I realized for my next 1-1/2 hours, driving with
16:23 this young man, why the Lord had me do this.
16:25 And so when you get into a stressful situation,
16:28 the best way to deal with it is to ask the Lord...
16:31 "Why is this thing happening. "
16:34 What in my character needs developing?
16:36 What in my life needs changing?
16:37 What do I have to learn about ME to make me a better person?
16:41 And now I've learned, it doesn't matter to me...
16:44 I'll go to the airport, and they'll tell me...
16:47 another real quick... if I can Dr. Thrash...
16:50 I've got a quick situation...
16:52 I was in the airport in Munich a few years ago,
16:55 and they told me the plane was overbooked, I didn't have a seat
16:59 And, would I mind waiting...
17:00 And I said, "Well, I'd really like to go now,
17:03 I've been here for 5 weeks.
17:04 They said, "Well, we'll give you one of the last seats
17:06 but, if we need it, can we have it?
17:09 I said, "Sure, if you need it, you can have it. "
17:11 So they gave me the seat 23-B
17:13 but it turned out, they did not need my seat.
17:17 I was happy. I was going home...
17:19 So I went and I sat down in my seat 23-B,
17:21 strapped myself in and everything was going fine
17:25 and pretty soon, another man came up the aisle...
17:28 and he looked at me and said, "You're in my SEAT."
17:29 And I looked at my little ticket and I said,
17:32 "No sir, this is 23-B."
17:35 And he said, "I've got 23-B too. "
17:36 And he showed me his ticket and he turned around and
17:38 WOOOH... back up front! Type A person.
17:42 Pretty soon, here he comes back...
17:44 dragging the stewardess with him.
17:45 And the stewardess comes to me and she says,
17:47 "Sir, may I see your stub?" And I said, "Sure. "
17:49 And I handed her my stub and she looks at my stub
17:52 and she says... TO ME... "Sir, you'll have to leave. "
17:55 Now, I could have said... "NO WAY... I got here first,
17:58 this says 23-B... I'm not going anywhere. "
18:00 I said, "Okay, fine... Do I have to leave the airplane"
18:04 She said, "Just come with me. "
18:05 I said, "Okay. "
18:07 So I get my things and she walked out and into the
18:09 little in-between place...
18:11 When I finally got in there, she handed me my stub back.
18:14 She had crossed out 23-B and written 2-E.
18:18 You know where 2-E is?
18:21 I've WALKED through first class...
18:23 I was on a window, second row, first class...
18:27 for 11 hours from Munich to Atlanta.
18:29 Now if I'd gotten all stressed out too,
18:31 they probably would have gone ahead and given it
18:34 to the other guy but he made this stressor
18:37 his depressor.
18:38 It depressed him for the rest of the trip.
18:40 But if he knew... I was up there enjoying myself greatly.
18:44 So, how do you receive your stress?
18:46 Receive it sometimes as God's message that He says
18:50 "I'm getting ready to do something GOOD for you. "
18:53 Receive it correctly.
18:54 I look forward to these stressful situations.
18:57 Now I just want to sit back, type B...
18:59 If it goes bad, there's a reason for it.
19:02 And I know I've got lots of things left in my
19:04 character to be developed.
19:05 And if He needs to put me in a stressful situation,
19:07 "Lord, bring em on... just give me the grace to
19:11 not be creating them for myself but be dealing with them
19:15 with your grace. "
19:17 Dr. Thrash, that's the way I like to deal
19:18 with these stress things.
19:19 Ah yes... very good story. I appreciate that!
19:22 I once worked with a nurse in Louisville, Kentucky
19:25 who was a pediatric nurse and a very good one.
19:29 And one of the things that characterized her was
19:31 that she just fell in love with her little patients.
19:34 I remember one little fellow who had big blue eyes
19:38 and beautiful creamy skin...
19:42 and she just fell in love with him but he had leukemia.
19:46 So, we all knew that he was going to die.
19:48 And as his disease developed, she became more and more
19:52 concerned about him...
19:53 And finally when he died, he died in her arms
19:57 and she just almost fell to pieces.
20:01 The next day, she got a little infection of some kind
20:05 and within a week, she was in a full-blown infection
20:08 and continued to have that for over a month before
20:12 she could come back to work.
20:14 I had another associate, a psychiatric nurse...
20:18 She dealt with schizophrenic patients a lot
20:21 And she would private duty nurse some of the
20:23 schizophrenic patients.
20:24 And when they would really go sour in some way
20:28 and hallucinate or get very abusive toward her,
20:32 then she would come down with an infection.
20:35 And we find from studies that have been done
20:38 in many areas, that abusive situations or major losses
20:42 of some kind, can bring on an illness of some other kind.
20:46 Infectious illnesses are common but also a wide variety of other
20:51 illnesses... I mentioned the peptic ulcer.
20:53 There are also hernia situations and slip disk situations
20:58 and all sorts of skeletal problems that can occur
21:02 because of extreme stresses.
21:04 People meet stresses in different ways,
21:08 and, as Don Miller just told you,
21:10 if you learn to sort of roll with the stressor,
21:15 then you will find yourself to be much happier.
21:18 Learn to have a Christian attitude about your stresses.
21:21 One of the important stresses that occur in people's lives
21:25 is that of simple change.
21:26 Just as we heard about the seat change.
21:30 It's an annoyance always, when you had planned something
21:34 to go this way...
21:35 And all of a sudden you realize it is not going to go that way
21:38 ...there has been some interruption.
21:40 There has been some change of course.
21:42 And as you have these interruptions and
21:44 changes of course,
21:45 then you find that you're annoyed, or you can be annoyed.
21:52 But you need to have the very spirit of Christ
21:56 about the changes.
21:57 If you will read the life of Christ,
21:59 you will see that His life was a life of FORCED changes.
22:03 He would be speaking to His audience and
22:06 in would come the hecklers.
22:08 Or, up would come those who would glower over
22:11 their glasses, I suppose, at Him.
22:14 And yet, He steered a straight forward course,
22:17 or He received the interruptions with the grace that He has
22:21 taught us... that we may also have.
22:24 Now, as we think about the diseases that can come
22:27 to people because of their stressors,
22:30 we need to know that we cannot bear stresses
22:34 ourselves... we are not constructed by our
22:37 Divine Designer to bear stresses...
22:39 so we can put these stresses on Him...
22:42 "Father, I am Your child, this stressor is a
22:46 test for me.
22:47 I am not capable of bearing this stress alone.
22:51 And, therefore, I request that Your broad shoulders
22:56 carry this stress. "
22:57 And, I have never had it to fail me when I have had this
23:00 kind of stressor and this kind of relationship to it...
23:04 But that the Lord bore me over the stressor without any
23:08 difficulty at all.
23:10 He is capable of unraveling the most tangled situation.
23:14 And now, Don Miller is going to talk with you about
23:18 another aspect of stress.
23:19 Okay... I like to keep going back to situations in our
23:23 environment... situations in our lives that cause us
23:27 to thank the Lord for the stress response...
23:30 the response to a stressor.
23:32 I am the type that...
23:34 and this is a character flaw that I've got to still work on,
23:38 that if I'm driving somewhere, I'm going to get there,
23:42 I'm not going to stop... I'm going to keep on driving.
23:44 And sometimes, I have been driving along...
23:48 and got a little bit road-weary
23:50 and took one of those little micro-naps...
23:52 You've taken those yourself.
23:53 And it's one thing to wake up and you're still on the road...
23:55 But I remember one time, I was driving down the road,
23:58 and I had still a long way to go... I was by myself
24:00 late at night... I really was pushing.
24:03 And I had to get there...
24:04 and as I was driving down the road, I had one of those
24:07 little micro-naps and I ran off the road...
24:10 And I HIT something really rough on my tires
24:13 and it scared me SO bad, that was the stress response...
24:18 the feeling, the sight... all these things,
24:22 and I was wide awake the rest of the night.
24:24 I had no problem getting there.
24:26 And other situation... when I was in college.
24:29 I was driving from Georgetown, Kentucky to my college in
24:34 Campbellsville... late at night again
24:36 and I was tired and I got to this little town
24:39 and this time, I was going to stop.
24:42 And there was a filling station there...
24:43 this was outside of town, everything was closed.
24:45 And there was a road going this way and a road going this way...
24:48 and I pulled in and just stopped, put it in neutral,
24:52 and just put my head over the steering wheel...
24:55 sound asleep, instantly.
24:56 Car was still running, lights were on,
24:59 and I was basically lined up crossways on the road
25:02 before I got to the road, straight into a fence...
25:05 This is what I was looking at when I stopped.
25:08 I slept probably no more than a few moments because
25:11 micro-naps are very good for you...
25:13 But when I woke up, I had forgotten where I was,
25:17 anything about the situation, my car was running,
25:19 and all I could see was a FENCE in front of me.
25:22 It gave me that adrenal response.
25:27 It scared me SO BAD,
25:29 I couldn't sleep once I got back to college... an hour later.
25:32 That really got everything going in my body.
25:35 And so these are GOOD responses,
25:38 but then again, I've mentioned before and it bears
25:41 mentioning again...
25:42 When you are in that stressful situation that you cannot change
25:46 and it's a stressful situation brought on by
25:48 a deadline, brought on by your boss,
25:51 brought on by... whatever it is in your environment
25:54 that you cannot change and you can't run from it
25:57 ...somehow in your experience,
25:58 you have to release that stress.
26:03 And the best way is let your muscles use up that extra
26:09 Let your muscles use up that extra heart rate.
26:12 Just by doing some exercises where you are,
26:15 if you can, just get up and walk around very quickly
26:17 Take some deep breaths and surrender the situation
26:21 to the Lord realizing that good will come out of this thing
26:24 It's amazing, these stress responses...
26:28 the adrenalin and all the stress hormones,
26:32 they only last a short time in your system...
26:35 in working the really peak activity.
26:38 Use them up as fast as possible.
26:40 As you are letting your mind get out of the stressful
26:44 situation and it will not do you the large harm that it WILL do
26:49 if you do not learn to deal with it correctly... Dr. Thrash.
26:52 There's another area that I would like to touch on
26:54 in dealing with stress and that's stress in babies.
26:58 I'm sure that we don't think about the fact that babies
27:01 can be under quite a lot of stress.
27:03 They are born into a foreign environment.
27:06 They are in the nursery with foreign hands and foreign voices
27:10 that they've never heard before.
27:12 And when they're with their parents,
27:14 whose voices they do recognize,
27:16 they are often with other people whom they don't recognize.
27:21 And then lights are flashing to take photographs and
27:24 all sorts of nurses are doing funny things to them that
27:29 they don't understand...
27:30 And babies can develop first class stress.
27:34 And when they're in the hospital is the time
27:36 when we need to protect our babies from the stresses
27:40 that can give them a bad start in life.
27:44 And so from infancy to old age, we need to be constantly
27:49 aware of the fact that God is trying to protect us
27:53 from the serious
27:54 stresses of life.